If, instead of mass, the known variable is total volume, use the following equation:
If, instead of mass or volume, the known variable is a flow rate, before using the above equation we must determine the equivalent volume that would be filled in one second at this flow using the following equation:
If the volume provided/calculated is at operating pressure and temperature, we need to determine the equivalent volume at ambient temperature and pressure (ATP) using the equation below:
c = Specific Heat Capacity (kJ/kg•K)
Specific Heat Capacity is a material specific property. It is the amount of thermal energy required to raise the temperature of the material per unit of mass. If different materials are being heated in the system, then the power equation above will have to be redone for each individual material.
ΔT = Change/Difference in Temperature (°K)
If the temperature is provided in degrees Celsius, the units do not need to be converted because we are using the change in temperature.
t = Time (sec)
A safety factor will be necessary because there are losses and inefficiencies in every system. The safety factor required is dependent upon the expected efficiency of application/system being analyzed. If no safety factor is included, the calculated power is a theoretical value that assumes 100% perfectly efficient heat transfer.