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Thermal Properties of Materials

Thermal Properties of Metals

Material *Density
lb./in³
Specific Heat
Btu/(lb)(°F)
*Thermal Conductivity
(Btu)(in.)/
(hr.)(ft²)(°F)
Melting Point °F (Lowest) Latent Heat
of Fusion
Btu/lb.
*Thermal Expansion in/in/°F
x10-6

Aluminum 1100-0
Brass, Yellow
Copper
Gold

.098
.306
.324
.698

.24
.096
.095
.032

1540
816
2736
2064

1190
1710
1981
1945

169.0
 
91.1
29.0

13.1
11.3
9.2
7.9

Incoloy 800
Incoloy 600
Invar 36% Ni
Iron, Malleable Cast

.290
.304
.289
.260

.13
.13
.12
.11

80
103
76
320

2500
2500
2600
2250

 
 
 
 

7.9
5.8
0.6
6.0

Lead, Solid
Lead, Liquid
Magnesium
Molybdenum

.410
.372
.063
.369

.032
.037
.25
.071

241
107
1068
980

621
 
1202
4750

11.3
 
160.0
126.0

16.3
 
14.0
2.94

Monel 400
Nickel 200
Nichrome (80% Ni-20% Cr)
Palladium 99.5%

.319
.321
.302
.432

.11
.12
.11
.06

151
520
104
490

2400
2615
2550
2830

 
133.0
 
69.5

6.4
5.8
7.3
6.5

Platinum
Silver
Solder (50% Pb-50% Sb)
Steel, Mild

.775
.379
.321
.284

.035
.057
.051
.12

480
2904
323
460

3217
1761
421
2760

49.0
38.0
17
 

4.9
11.4
13.0
6.7

Steel, Stainless 304
Steel, Stainless 430
Tantalum
Tin, Solid

.290
.280
.600
.264

.12
.11
.035
.065

113
181
372
468

2550
2600
5425
449

 
 
 
26.1

9.6
5.8
3.57
12.8

Tin, Liquid
Titanium 99.0%
Tungsten
Type Metal
(85% Pb-15% Sb)

.246
.163
.697
.387
 

.052
.13
.03
.04
 

228
112
1140
 
 

 
3020
6170
500
 

 
187
79.0
14
 

 
4.8
2.45
 
 

Zinc
Zirconium

.258
.234

.096
.067

785
145

787
3350

43.3
108

22.0
3.22

Printable Version

Thermal Properties of Non-metals

Material *Density
lb./in³
Specific Heat
Btu/(lb)(°F)
*Thermal Conductivity
(Btu)(in.)/
(hr.)(ft²)(°F)
Melting Point °F (Lowest) Latent Heat
of Fusion
Btu/lb.
*Thermal Expansion in/in/°F
x10-6

Asphalt
Boron Nitride (Compacted)
Brick, Hard
Carbon

.076
.082
.072
.080

.22
.33
.24
.20

5.16
125.00
9.00
165.00 

250
5430
 
6700 

40
 
 
 

 
1-4
3-6
0.3-2.4

Cellulose Acetate
Delrin
Glass, Crown
Ice

.048
.050
.101
.033

.40
.35
.16
.49

1.20-2.30
1.56
7.50
15.60

 
 
 
32 

 
 
 
144

61-83
45
5
28.3 

Mica
MgO (Compacted)
Nylon
Paper

.098
.110
.042
.033

.12
.21
.45
.33

4.80
14.40
1.70
0.84 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

18
7.7
61-63
 

Paraffin
Phenolic (Cast Resin)
Polyethylene (High Density)
Polystyrene

.033
.047
.035
.038

.69
.35
.55
.32

1.60
1.1
3.36
0.70-1.00

133
 
 
 

63
 
 
 

 
44-61
94
33-44

Rubber, Hard
Steatite
Sulfur
Teflon

.043
.073
.072
.078

.48
.20
.20
.25

1.12
20.40
1.80
1.70 

 
 
230
  

 
 
17
 

340
4.5-5.5
36
55

Vinylidene
Wood, Oak

.062
.027

..32
.57

2.00
1.22

 
 

 
 

28-100
 

Printable Version

Thermal Properties of Liquids

Material *Density
lb./Gal.
Specific Heat
Btu/(lb)(°F)
*Thermal Conductivity
(Btu)(in.)/
(hr.)(ft²)(°F)
Boiling Point °F Heat of Vaporization
Btu/lb. 

Acetic Acid, 20%**
Alcohol (ethyl)
Brine (25% NaCl)**
Caustic Soda (18% NaOH)**

8.60
6.74
9.91
10.00 

.91
.60
.79
.84 

3.70
1.30
2.88
3.90 

214±
173
220±
221±

810±
367
730±
795±

Dowtherm A
Ethylene Glycol
Freon 12
Glycerine

8.80
9.36
10.94
10.52 

.44
.56
.23
.58

0.96
 
0.49
1.97

496
387
-21.6
556

42.2
 
62
 

Hydrochloric Acid 10%**
Nitric Acid, 7%**
Oils (Petroleum)
Paraffin (Melted)

8.89
8.65
7.35
7.49

.93
.92
.45
.96±

3.90
3.80
 
1.68

551
220±
 
572

 
918±
 
70

Potassium (K)***
Sodium (Na)***
Sulfuric Acid 10%**
Therminol FR-2

5.96
6.84
9.90
12.10

.18
.30
.92
.30

253.2
446.4
4.0
0.7

1400
1638
216
648±

893
1810
 
 

Turpentine
Vegetable Oil
Water

7.22
7.75
8.34

.42
.43±
1.00

0.90
1.10
4.08

319
 
212

133
 
965

Printable Version

Thermal Properties of Gases

Gas *Density
lb./ft3
Specific Heat
Btu/(lb)(°F)
*Thermal Conductivity
(Btu)(in.)/
(hr.)(ft²)(°F)

Air at 80°F
Air at 400°F
Ammonia
Argon
 

.073
.046
.044
.102
 

.240
.247
.523
.125
 

.18
.27
.16
.12

Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Monoxide
Chlorine
Helium

.113
.072
.184
.011
 

.199
.248
.115
1.250

.12
.18
.06
1.10

Hydrogen
Methane
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Sulphur Dioxide
 

.0052
.0447
.072
.082
.172
 

3.390
.590
.248
.218
.152
 

.13
.21
.19
.18
.07

Printable Version


*At or near room temperature.
**Percentage concentration by weight in water solution.
***At 1000F



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